Alzheimer's disease for 200 years

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Author: Ji Yong, director of Neurology, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, chief physician, adjunct professor of Nankai University. Vice chairman, China microcirculation society, neurodegenerative diseases, Specialized Committee.
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Chinese Journal of modern nervous diseases, March 2014, Vol. third, No. fourteenth
Introduction
The concept of dementia as early as 2000 BC by the ancient Egyptian physicians first suggested that traditional Chinese medicine will be included in the "stay disease", "foolish", "forgetfulness", "depression", "wild card" card "etc.. In modern medicine "dementia" is English "dementia" originated from the famous French doctor Dr. Pinel Philippe, in 1801 he was the first to report 1 cases of 34 year old female patient was given the microscope technology, there is no detailed pathological report. Until a century later (in 1906), the German doctor Alois Alzheimer detailed description of the patient's pathological results, it is gradually known. The discovery of Alzheimer's disease and the history of the development on behalf of the modern neurology department of history, but also from the world famous French Piti -Salp 'tri re hospital in Germany (Europe) to the development of modern medical history of the United states.
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the death of neurons. As early as 2000 BC by the ancient Egyptian physicians first proposed; traditional Chinese medicine will be included in the "stay disease", "foolish", "forgetfulness", "depression", "wild card" card "etc.. The Ming Dynasty Zhang Jingyue (1563-1640) "in the" Jing Yue book - miscellaneous Mo "for the first time in the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment were discussed in detail. Wang Qingren of the Qing Dynasty (1768-1831) in the "correction" in the "machine memory is not in mind in the brain", "children with no memory, marrow is not full; high years without memory, marrow gradually empty", "brain Qi, brain narrowing..", for the first time the disease due to nerve dysfunction.
In modern medicine, "dementia" in English is "dementia", derived from the French doctor Philippe Pinel (Philip Pinel, 1745-1826; 1) dr.. In 1801, Pinel had 1 cases of female patients 34 years of age, unlike other patients, the patients showed some strange symptoms, such as severe memory loss, loss of function words, can not walk, and forget how to use daily necessities such as combs, knife, fork etc.. Pinel describes the condition as "demence" or the brain is not coherent. Since then, it has been argued that the term "dementia" is related to. The patient eventually died, the autopsy found that the brain tissue is full of liquid, brain atrophy".
A town of Pinel was born in 1745 in France ronkey. (French: Jonqui RES), practicing in Paris before, he mainly in writing, translation and proofreading for students, because the local medical institutions to his medical degree has not been recognized, the two time to apply for research funding was not approved, who want to emigrate to the United states. Dr Pinel's strong interest in psychiatry was that he had a friend who was mentally ill and died of a sudden escape from a mental hospital. He was shocked by the death of his friend, who thought it was a tragedy caused by poor hospital management, and at the same time determined to devote himself to the study of psychiatry. He had secretly visited the mentally disabled patients, and found that many of them were chained and treated like beasts. He is very sympathetic to the experience of these patients, they will be in contact with their experience and treatment ideas written in the monograph on the medical philosophy of insanity or mania, paper (1801, Paris).
In the book and his other works "published in 1798" philosophical classification of disease, Pinel that "madness" patients have a disease, but it is not a simple weird or more non evil, the devil; he discussed the mental disorder is a neurological disorder caused by personality disorder, at the same time in the advocacy of humanitarian movement should be focused on relief for these patients. Pinel's argument swept away the old ideas of the mentally ill, leaving the disease and the devil. His innovation was soon followed by medical practitioners in other countries, such as the UK's William Tuke, Italy's Vincenzo Chiarugi and the U.S. Dorothea L. Dix. Pinel's work is considered a milestone in the history of psychiatry. In 1795, he became a French woman in Paris relief (Piti -Salp Hospital of tri re hospital) chief physician and medical professor in the Department of pathology. Pinel has made outstanding contributions to modern neurology and psychiatry, so his statue and lady Curie's statue stands in the -Salp parallel Piti tri re hospital (Figure 2). The tri -Salp Piti filed a re hospital, many people have heard of. Founded in 1613, the hospital has more than 2 thousand and 300 beds and is the largest hospital in France and europe. In addition to its long history, it is one of the leading hospitals in France, and the Babinski building is the world's leading center for neurological research and diagnosis and treatment. Piti -Salp of the tri re hospital was originally a gunpowder factory ("niter" is a component of gunpowder), and later became the slums of Paris, was detained and prostitutes, mental illness, mental illness and criminal tendencies with insane chronic patients of detention, also is home to the poor, and because of the mouse rampant and famous (Figure 3). Later, the French king Louis Xiv ordered in the establishment of the hospital, a medical director since 1795 Pinel Piti -Salp of tri re hospital, many of the world famous psychiatrist and neurologist, psychiatrist born from here and research